The chi squared test

a)      Can be used to compare two drug treatments

b)      Does not have to be blind (with regards to selection of subjects)

c)      In a 2 by 2 table the degree of freedom is  always one

d)      Can only be used to compare two samples

 

Concerning location of vaporisers within the anaesthetic circuit:

a)      With the vaporiser inside a circle (VIC), the inflow gas contains an unknown concentration of volatile agent

b)      With VIC an accurate vaporiser, efficient at low flows should be used to maintain accurate vapour concentration within the circuit.

c)      With the vaporiser outside ht circle (VOC) an inefficient vaporiser is indicated because inspired concentrations are not critical.

d)      With VOC the anaesthetic vapour concentration within the circuit is dependent upon uptake.

e)      With VIC and low fresh gas flow, the inspired concentration is greater than the vaporiser setting.

 

In a normal (Gaussian ) distribution:

a)      The median is the numerical value that is exactly in the middle

b)      The mode is the most common numerical value

c)      The mean and the median are identical

d)      95% of the population fall within one standard deviation on either side of the mean

e)      student’s test is  suitable instrument for statistical analysi

 

 

 

The following statements are true

a)Type-2 error occurs when a false hypothesis is accepted

b)      The null hypothesis is formulated to be rejected

c)      A nonparametric test is used when the variable studied has a normal (gaussian) distribution.

d)      The variance of a sample is the square of the standard deviation

e)      A correlation coefficient of +0/9 proves that tow variables are causally related

 

The mass of gas dissolved in a liquid at constant ambient temperature depends upon the :-

a)Temperature of the liquid

b)      Partial pressure of the gas

c)      Diffusion coefficient

d)      Solubility of the gas in the liquid

e)      Critical temperature of the gas.

 

The following are true

a)      The Mann-Whitney u test is appropriate for the analysis of non-parametric data

b)      Data for a comparative t-test should be similarly distributed

c)      In a normal distribution the mean, mode, and median are th same

d)      APGAR scores are normally distributed

e)      The standard deviation in a normal distribution is a measure of he distribution of the data around the mean

 

 

 

Statistical tests are applied to studies to

a)      Exclude placebo effect

b)      Reduce observer bias

c)      Minimise errors in measurement

d)      Show that one treatment is better than another

 

The scatter of a population can be estimated from the

a)      Range

b)      Mean

c)      Standard error of the mean

d)      Standard deviation

e)      P value <0.05

 

In a given population 1 standard deviation will include more than the following percentage of the population

a)      50%

b)      60%

c)      90%

d)      97%

e)      99%

 

 

 

 

 

 

The weight respirometer:-

a)      May be used to measure peak flow rate

b)      Will under-read at low flow rates

c)      Is a vane anemometer

d)      May be used to measure vital capacity

e)      Is accurate when reversely connected.

 

Ultraviolet analysers:-

a)      Are used for halothane since it absorbs ultra-violet radiation

b)      Are sensitive to carbon dioxide

c)      Are not sensitive to nitrous oxide

d)      May be affected by water vapour

e)      Utilise a mercury vapour lamp to produce  ultra-violet light.

 

Gas chromatography:-

a)      The stationary phase is usually silica-alumina or “firebrick”

b)      A carrier gas like He. Or Nitrogen is required

c)      Solubility of individual substance in the stationary phase is heat dependent.

d)      May be used to separate gas mixture

e)      Detectors are required to identify the separated compounds.

 

 

 

 

 

In the Bohr equation to determine the dead space, which factors are employed:-

a)      Inspired pCO2

b)      Mean expired CO2 concentration

c)      PaCO2

d)      Tidal volume

e)      Cardiac output

 

Laminar flow in a tube is directly related to:-

a)      The square of the radius of the tube

b)      The viscosity

c)      The osmotic pressure

d)      The density

e)      The pressure difference

Medical gases are supplied in cylinders have the following characteristics:-

a)      Oxygen at 130 psi

b)      N2 0 at 750 psi

c)      CO2 at 50 atmospheres

d)      Nitrous oxide contains 1% pure water vapour

e)      N2O stored at – 8°C is dangerous

 

 

 

 

 

 

Capnography and capnometry

a)      Sidestream analysers have faster response times than mainstream analysers

b)      Cardiovascular collapse process exponential decline in ETCO2

c)      Reduced pulmonary perfusion and hypothermia may produce similar capnographs

d)      Apparatus dead space significantly increases arterial alveolar PCO2 gradient.

e)      One lung ventilation decreases arterial ETCO2 gradient.